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May 16, 2023 · CAUSES OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY. The main reasons for low levels of vitamin D are: Lack of vitamin D in the diet, often in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure. Reduced absorption of vitamin D from the intestines. Reduced processing of vitamin D due to kidney or liver disease. Patient level information — UpToDate offers two types of patient education materials. The Basics — The Basics patient education pieces answer the four or five key questions a patient might have about a given condition. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials.Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and sometimes fatal disease with a variable clinical presentation. It is critical that therapy be administered in a timely fashion [ 1-5 ]. The treatment, prognosis, and follow-up of patients with acute PE are reviewed here. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis …Symptoms and signs — Rhabdomyolysis is characterized clinically by the triad of myalgias, muscle weakness, and red to brown urine due to myoglobinuria [ 1 ]. Biochemically, several serum muscle enzymes are elevated, including CK. The degree of muscle pain and other symptoms varies widely. Most of the symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are nonspecific.Is it postpartum depression or baby blues? It's not the same condition! These are the symptoms of postnatal depression and how to manage them. Postpartum depression is a mental hea...Feb 12, 2024 · Although hypokalemia can be transiently induced by the entry of potassium into the cells, most cases result from unreplenished gastrointestinal or urinary losses due, for example, to vomiting, diarrhea, or diuretic therapy [ 1-3 ]. (See "Causes of hypokalemia in adults" .) Potassium replacement is primarily indicated when hypokalemia is due to ... In some cases, heart failure can be mild and cause minor symptoms that are only evident with physical activity. Other times it can be severe (causing symptoms at rest) or even life-threatening. The most common symptoms of heart failure are shortness of breath, fatigue, leg swelling, and other signs of fluid retention.Beta-lactamases are enzymes that open the beta-lactam ring, inactivating the antibiotic. The first plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase in gram-negative bacteria was discovered in Greece in the 1960s. It was named TEM after the patient from whom it was isolated (Temoniera) [ 2 ]. Subsequently, a closely related enzyme was discovered and named TEM-2.Jun 10, 2022 · INTRODUCTION. —. Tetanus is a nervous system disorder characterized by muscle spasms that is caused by the toxin-producing anaerobe Clostridium tetani, which is found in the soil. The clinical features of tetanus and its relationship to traumatic injuries were well known among the ancient Greeks and Egyptians and to many clinicians before the ... UpToDate is an online resource that helps you make informed decisions about medical care. Access the latest evidence, expert opinions, and patient education with your subscription.The clinical manifestations and evaluation of patients with exacerbations of COPD are discussed in detail here. A table to assist with emergency management of severe acute exacerbations of COPD is provided ( table 1 ). The diagnosis and treatment of stable COPD and the treatment, risk factors, prognosis, and prevention of exacerbations of …Potassium enters the body via oral intake or intravenous infusion, is largely stored in the cells, and is then excreted in the urine. The major causes of hyperkalemia are increased potassium release from the cells and, most often, reduced urinary potassium excretion ( table 1 ). This topic will review the causes and evaluation of hyperkalemia.The inpatient management of syndromes associated with moderate and severe alcohol withdrawal is reviewed here. The ambulatory management of mild alcohol withdrawal, the initial diagnosis and treatment of alcohol use disorder, and specific conditions due to alcohol-related organ damage (eg, cirrhosis, pancreatitis) are …Using deep insights and evidence to solve a diagnostic puzzle. Learn how UpToDate helped a pediatric resident diagnose a rare case of neonatal diabetes mellitus. Clinical decision support (CDS) leverages peer-reviewed medical evidence to offer patients the best care. UpToDate continues to be the leading CDS solution used by healthcare providers.The clinical manifestations and evaluation of patients with exacerbations of COPD are discussed in detail here. A table to assist with emergency management of severe acute exacerbations of COPD is provided ( table 1 ). The diagnosis and treatment of stable COPD and the treatment, risk factors, prognosis, and prevention of exacerbations of …This topic will review the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and initial evaluation of diabetes in nonpregnant adults. Screening for and prevention of diabetes, the etiologic classification of diabetes mellitus, the treatment of diabetes, as well as diabetes during pregnancy are discussed separately. (See "Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus" .)UpToDate: Trusted, evidence-based solutions for modern healthcare. Dedicated to continuously innovating to meet the needs of the rapidly changing medical landscape, the UpToDate® suite offers clinical, drug, patient and member content to support health professionals wherever care takes place. Subscribe To UpToDate.Moved Permanently. The document has moved here.Advertisement When Columbus arrived with the Spanish at the end of the 15th century, they were all struck by how little the native Taíno people wore. Many were completely naked, wh...For over 30 years, clinicians around the world have trusted the evidence-based content in the UpToDate® clinical decision support (CDS) system to help make crucial care decisions when it matters most. Founded by clinicians for clinicians, and backed by an expert editorial team in over 25 specialties, UpToDate provides the latest medical ...What's New. Our editors select a small number of the most important updates and share them with you via What's New. See these updates by clicking on the specialty you are interested in below. You may also enter "What's new" in the search box. Find Out What's New In:Acute pancreatitis should be suspected in patients with severe acute upper abdominal pain but requires biochemical or radiologic evidence to establish the diagnosis. This topic will review the clinical manifestations and diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. The etiology, pathogenesis, assessment of severity, and management of acute pancreatitis …Display complete list of interactions for an individual item by clicking item name. Add another item to analyze for potential interactions. NOTE: This tool does not address chemical compatibility related to I.V. drug preparation or administration. View interaction detail by clicking on link (s) below.The Insider Trading Activity of Kornitzer Benjamin on Markets Insider. Indices Commodities Currencies StocksSoftBank-backed South Korean on-demand laundry service startup Laundrygo raises Series C funding led by private equity firm H&Q Korea. Mom-and-pop stores and franchises — mostly of...You can apply for Frontier Airlines status with a choice of a status match or challenge. Frontier Airlines has just launched a new status offer, allowing Frontier Miles members wit...Severe sepsis in adults: Rapid overview of emergency management during first hour. Table 1. Securing the airway (if indicated), correcting hypoxemia, and establishing venous access for the early administration of fluids and antibiotics are priorities in the management of patients with sepsis and septic shock [ 3,4 ].Sign in with Microsoft. Sign in with Open Athens. Sign in Another Way. If your organization permits Single Sign-On (SSO) for UpToDate, you may use your email address here.CULLEN SMALL CAP VALUE FUND CLASS I- Performance charts including intraday, historical charts and prices and keydata. Indices Commodities Currencies StocksApr 1, 2024 · For over a century, open appendectomy was the only standard treatment for appendicitis. Contemporary management of appendicitis is more sophisticated and nuanced: laparoscopic appendectomy has surpassed open appendectomy in usage, some patients with perforated appendicitis may benefit from initial antibiotic therapy followed by interval ... Acute pharyngitis is one of the most common conditions encountered in outpatient clinical practice. Most cases of acute pharyngitis are caused by respiratory viruses and are self-limited. However, symptoms of viral pharyngitis broadly overlap with pharyngitis caused by important treatable causes, such as group A Streptococcus (GAS) ( figure 1 ).Apr 26, 2022 · Epilepsy is the syndrome of two or more unprovoked seizures that occur more than 24 hours apart [ 1 ]. Seizures affect people in many different ways. Seizures are disruptive in the lives of patients and can cause injury. People with epilepsy have higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity and may experience adverse psychosocial outcomes. You receive the entire UpToDate library of specialties with your subscription. Click on a section below to view a detailed list of topics associated with that particular section. If you'd like to see the table of contents for other specialties, click here. Practice Changing UpDates. What's New. Patient Education. Calculators. Authors and Editors. UpToDate is a trusted and evidence-based clinical resource tool that provides comprehensive and updated information on various medical topics. Log in to access the full content and features of UpToDate, or register for a free trial or subscription. UpToDate is a trusted and evidence-based clinical resource tool that provides comprehensive and updated information on various medical topics. Log in to access the full content and features of UpToDate, or register for a free trial or subscription.Osteoporosis is caused by the cumulative effect of bone resorption in excess of bone formation. Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption with relatively few side effects. As a result, they are widely used to prevent osteoporotic fractures. The use of bisphosphonates for the management of osteoporosis will be reviewed here.Bushmills, in Northern Ireland, is known for the famous whiskey distillery of the same name in the town. But there's more to it than that. In Northern Ireland nothing says cozy lik...UpToDate. With powerful and practical knowledge at your fingertips, UpToDate® is the only clinical decision support resource associated with improved patient outcomes. Purchase personal or group subscriptions for up to 19. Purchase UpToDate Online.UpToDate is an online platform that offers evidence-based clinical information and decision support for health care professionals and patients. To use UpToDate, you need to create an account or log in with your credentials.UpToDate is one of the most trusted brands in healthcare, providing key clinical and drug information at the point of care, and advanced technologies to educate and engage patients and members. Explore the different elements of the UpToDate suite of solutions that can help support better patient care. UpToDate is a trusted source of clinical information for health professionals. However, the page you are looking for can't be found. Try searching for a different topic or language. Jun 6, 2016 · Intrauterine tamponade (with a balloon, packing, or vacuum) may be used to manage patients with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) resulting from uterine atony that is not controlled by uterotonic medications and uterine massage. However, outcome data regarding vacuum-induced tamponade are limited. The diagnosis of iron deficiency (low iron stores, as measured by iron studies or other testing) is a major public health goal and an important aspect of the care of many adults. This topic will review the causes of iron deficiency in adults and an approach to the diagnostic evaluation. Treatment of iron deficiency in adults is discussed ...Normally during sleep, air moves in and out through the nose, throat, and lungs at a regular rhythm. In a person with sleep apnea, air movement is periodically reduced or stopped. There are two types of sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea and central (non-obstructive) sleep apnea; some forms of apnea involve both types (a “mixed” apnea).Hematuria is the medical term for red blood cells in the urine. Red blood cells in the urine can come from the kidney (where urine is made) or anywhere in the urinary tract ( figure 1 ). The urinary tract includes the ureters (the tubes that carry the urine from the kidneys to the bladder), the bladder (where urine is stored), the prostate (in ...UpToDate, electronic clinical resource tool for physicians and patients that provides information on Adult Primary Care and Internal Medicine, Allergy and Immunology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Family Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hematology, Infectious Diseases, Nephrology and Hypertension, Neurology, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women ...Patient Education. UpToDate offers two levels of content for patients: The Basics are short overviews. They are written in accordance with plain language principles and answer the four or five most important questions a person might have about a medical problem. Beyond the Basics are longer, more detailed reviews.Multiple antibiotic regimens have been evaluated for Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) therapy [ 1-6 ]. However, few regimens have consistently achieved high eradication rates. There are also limited data on H. pylori antibiotic resistance rates to guide therapy. The treatment regimen that is selected must consider local antibiotic resistance ...Mar 28, 2024 · Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and anxiety that are difficult to control, cause significant distress and impairment, and occur on more days than not for at least six months [ 1 ]. GAD is a relatively common disorder, most often with an adult onset and chronic course [ 2-6 ]. The Soho chic look comes from the streets of Soho in New York. Do you have what it takes? See five tips for getting the Soho chic look. Advertisement Soho is one of New York City'...Pneumonia can be caused by a variety of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, and, less commonly, fungi. The most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in the United States is a type of bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called pneumococcus). Other bacteria can cause pneumonia as well.Trusted expert editorial content. The heart of UpToDate is over 7,400 expert clinicians, editors, and reviewers who review and assemble the latest evidence-based clinical, …Display complete list of interactions for an individual item by clicking item name. Add another item to analyze for potential interactions. NOTE: This tool does not address chemical compatibility related to I.V. drug preparation or administration. View interaction detail by clicking on link (s) below.Mar 25, 2024 · Acute treatment of migraine in adults without hemiplegic or brainstem aura. Algorithm 1. The abortive (symptomatic) therapy of migraine ranges from the use of simple analgesics such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or acetaminophen to triptans, antiemetics, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonists, lasmiditan, and ... Insomnia disorder is defined as difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and/or waking up earlier than you want to in the morning and being unable to fall back to sleep. In general, people with insomnia sleep less or sleep poorly despite having an adequate chance to sleep. Sleeping poorly or not enough makes it harder to function ...Although hypokalemia can be transiently induced by the entry of potassium into the cells, most cases result from unreplenished gastrointestinal or urinary losses due, for example, to vomiting, diarrhea, or diuretic therapy [ 1-3 ]. (See "Causes of hypokalemia in adults" .) Potassium replacement is primarily indicated when hypokalemia is due to ... The management of bowel obstruction depends upon the etiology, Disclaimer: This generalized information is a Diagnosis — The clinical diagnosis of cystitis is made in a patient who has classic signs and symptoms (ie, dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency, and/or suprapubic pain). For females who have atypical urinary symptoms, the diagnosis is supported by the presence of pyuria and bacteriuria on urinalysis and/or culture. UpToDate is a trusted source of clinical information for he UpToDate, the evidence-based clinical decision support resource from Wolters Kluwer, is trusted at the point of care by clinicians worldwide. For the best experience, we recommend using the most recent versions of Microsoft Edge, Mozilla® Firefox®, and Google Chrome™. Measures to cut down on leveraged crypto trades could entice ins...

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CAUSES OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY. The main reasons for low levels of vitamin D are: Lack of vitam...

Want to understand the INTRODUCTION. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and sometimes fatal disease. The approach to the evaluation should be effic?
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